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MessagePosté le: Jeu Sep 3 2009, 12:48    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 - 1821)

One of the greatest military leaders in history, and emperor of France he conquered much of Europe.




Napoleon Bonaparte was born on 15 August 1769 in Corsica into a gentry family. Educated at military school, he was rapidly promoted and in 1796, was made commander of the French army in Italy, where he forced Austria and its allies to make peace. In 1798, Napoleon conquered Ottoman-ruled Egypt in an attempt to strike at British trade routes with India. He was stranded when his fleet was destroyed by the British at the Battle of the Nile.France now faced a new coalition - Austria and Russia had allied with Britain.

Napoleon returned to Paris where the government was in crisis. In a coup d'etat in November 1799, Napoleon became first consul. In 1802, he was made consul for life and two years later, emperor. He oversaw the centralisation of government, the creation of the Bank of France, the reinstatement of Roman Catholicism as the state religion and law reform with the Code Napoleon.

In 1800, he defeated the Austrians at Marengo. He then negotiated a general European peace which established French power on the continent. In 1803 Britain resumed war with France, later joined by Russia and Austria. Britain inflicted a naval defeat on the French at Trafalgar (1805) so Napoleon abandoned plans to invade England and turned on the Austro-Russian forces, defeating them at Austerlitz later the same year. He gained much new territory, including annexation of Prussian lands which ostensibly gave him control of Europe. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, Holland and Westphalia created, and over the next 5 years, Napoleon's relatives and loyalists were installed as leaders (in Holland, Westphalia, Italy, Naples, Spain and Sweden).

In 1810, he had his childless marriage to Josephine de Beauharnais annulled and married the daughter of the Austrian emperor in the hope of having an heir. A son, Napoleon, was born a year later.

The Peninsular War began in 1808. Costly French defeats over the next five years drained French military resources. Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 resulted in a disastrous retreat. The tide started to turn in favour of the allies and in March 1814, Paris fell. Napoleon went into exile on the Mediterranean island of Elba. In March 1815 he escaped and marched on the French capital. The Battle of Waterloo ended his brief reign. The British imprisoned him on the remote Atlantic island of St. Helena where he died on 5 May 1821.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bonaparte_napoleon.shtml


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MessagePosté le: Jeu Sep 3 2009, 12:48    Sujet du message: Publicité

PublicitéSupprimer les publicités ?
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MessagePosté le: Ven Mai 7 2010, 20:01    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Once again : what is your question ???

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MessagePosté le: Lun Mai 10 2010, 07:04    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

, question about Napoléon ? well! well....there a lot of questions with no answer ?
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MessagePosté le: Lun Mai 10 2010, 19:16    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Tell me more  Wink

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MessagePosté le: Sam Mai 22 2010, 18:22    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Why Napoleon didn't receive much support from the United-States of America in his fight against England ?

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MessagePosté le: Dim Mai 23 2010, 09:16    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Hello Aetheling

Napoleon main goal was the domination of Europe. He figured if the United States became powerful it would help him against England.
Upon completion of the Louisiana Purchase deal, Napoleon made this quote: " The accession of this territory will forever affirm the power of the United States, and I have given England a maritime rival who sooner or later will humble her pride."
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MessagePosté le: Jeu Mai 27 2010, 06:42    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Nessie,

That is an interesting theory.  I have never heard that Napoleon sold the Louisiana territory to the US as a way of adding to US power.  The standard line, and one that makes sense, is that he sold it because he needed the money and he could not do anything in the New World anyway because Britain controlled the seas.  If he had been trying to increase US influence he certainly could not have thought it would help in his current wars.  For a good number of years aft the Louisiana Purchase the newly acquired territories were a net drain on the power of the US as these new territories were settled.
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MessagePosté le: Jeu Mai 27 2010, 10:48    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Well, it start with Louis XV1 , Ratification of the treaty of Paris, 1783. The British delegation refused to pose for the picture, for one thing, and Napoléon did eveything to beat the English....

Because the French involvement in the war was distant and naval in nature, over a billion livres tournois were spent by the French government to support the war effort, raising its overall debt to about 3.315 billion. The finances of the French state were in disastrous shape and were made worse by Jacques Necker, who, rather than raise taxes, used loans to pay off debts. State secretary in Finances Charles Alexandre de Calonne attempted to fix the deficit problem by asking for the taxation of the property of nobles and clergy but was dismissed and exiled for his ideas. The French instability further weakened the reforms that were essential in the re-establishment of stable French finances. Trade also severely declined during the war, but was revived by 1783.
The war was especially important for the prestige and pride of France, who was reinstated in the role of European arbiter. However, France did not become the main trading partner with the United States of America, despite the lavish military spending required to transport French troops over great distances.


By the way to you speak French, scout1067 ?
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MessagePosté le: Lun Mai 31 2010, 10:44    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

That being said, dealing with French debt is reasonable but doe not answer the question about what practical increase in American power and thus assistance Napoleon hoped to gain by selling the Louisiana Territory to America.  Any potential increase in American power coming from the acquisition of new lands was so far in the future that Napoleon could not have hoped to capitalize on it anyway.

Nope, I am an American.  I speak German and some Latin that I remember from High School but only enough French to start a fight.

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MessagePosté le: Mar Juin 1 2010, 10:26    Sujet du message: Napoleon Bonaparte Répondre en citant

Hello, alors bienvenue parmis nous, scout 1067  , and you should not learn French only too fight with us, because you will maybe not win, we are more then you are , i mean French at my forum

la Louisiane was given to the USA , to stop the almost war that started between the two country in1802. La Louisiane she has recuperated by Napoléon en 1800 with the traité of San Ildefonse, l'Espagne inhérit in 1762. But Louis XV, judge that the territory was indefensible. It was more from him a money exchange , With England or the USA
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